Changes in children's respiratory morbidity and residential exposure factors over 25 years in Chongqing, China.
Background:Respiratory morbidity and mortality during childhood remains a major challenge for global health. Due to the rapid economic development in Chongqing, we expect substantial temporal changes in respiratory health status and environmental risk factors in children. By leveraging a historical dataset, this study aims to assess the changes in prevalence of respiratory symptoms and diseases, residential exposure factors, and their associations in school-age children over a period of 25 years. Methods:This study involved two cross-sectional surveys conducted in Chongqing with a 25-year interval (2017 vs. 1993). Purpose sampling was used to conduct questionnaire surveys on school-age children in both surveys. Information collected include children's respiratory health outcomes, family residential exposures, demographic information, and parental respiratory disease history. The changes of residential exposures as well as demographics were determined by chi-square test. Odds ratios were calculated to compare the prevalence of children's respiratory symptoms and diseases between the two periods. Associations between children's respiratory outcomes and exposure indicators were assessed using multivariate logistic regressions. Results:The majority of residential exposure indicators improved in 2017, including sleep in shared room, cooking with coal, poor kitchen ventilation, cooking frequency, and parental smoking. Compared to the 1993 study, the adjusted risk for children's wheezing was lower (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.49), but the risk for bronchitis was higher (OR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.54, 2.31) in the 2017 study. Poor kitchen ventilation and parental smoking were linked to an increased risk of children's wheezing (OR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.90) and bronchitis (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.21), respectively, while heating in winter was linked to an increased risk of phlegm (OR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.90) and wheezing (OR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.01) in the 1993 study. However, these residential exposure factors were no longer associated with the children's respiratory diseases in the 2017 study. Conclusions:Our study found improvement of residential exposures in Chongqing, a decline of prevalence of children's wheezing but an increase of that of bronchitis from 1993 to 2017. Poor kitchen ventilation, heating in winter, and parental smoking were significant risk factors in the 1993 survey but, with significantly reduced prevalence in 2017, were not significantly associated with children's respiratory morbidity in the latter survey.
Li, Y; Huang, X; Liu, Q; Li, W; Yang, B; Chen, Y; Lin, W; Zhang, JJ
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