Molecular determinants on the insect sodium channel for the specific action of type II pyrethroid insecticides.
Pyrethroid insecticides are classified as type I or type II based on their distinct symptomology and effects on sodium channel gating. Structurally, type II pyrethroids possess an alpha-cyano group at the phenylbenzyl alcohol position, which is lacking in type I pyrethroids. Both type I and type II pyrethroids inhibit deactivation consequently prolonging the opening of sodium channels. However, type II pyrethroids inhibit the deactivation of sodium channels to a greater extent than type I pyrethroids inducing much slower decaying of tail currents upon repolarization. The molecular basis of a type II-specific action, however, is not known. Here we report the identification of a residue G(1111) and two positively charged lysines immediately downstream of G(1111) in the intracellular linker connecting domains II and III of the cockroach sodium channel that are specifically involved in the action of type II pyrethroids, but not in the action of type I pyrethroids. Deletion of G(1111), a consequence of alternative splicing, reduced the sodium channel sensitivity to type II pyrethroids, but had no effect on channel sensitivity to type I pyrethroids. Interestingly, charge neutralization or charge reversal of two positively charged lysines (Ks) downstream of G(1111) had a similar effect. These results provide the molecular insight into the type II-specific interaction of pyrethroids with the sodium channel at the molecular level.
Du, Y; Nomura, Y; Luo, N; Liu, Z; Lee, J-E; Khambay, B; Dong, K
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