Sufficient sampling for kriging prediction of cortical potential in rat, monkey, and human µECoG.
Objective. Large channel count surface-based electrophysiology arrays (e.g. µECoG) are high-throughput neural interfaces with good chronic stability. Electrode spacing remains ad hoc due to redundancy and nonstationarity of field dynamics. Here, we establish a criterion for electrode spacing based on the expected accuracy of predicting unsampled field potential from sampled sites.Approach. We applied spatial covariance modeling and field prediction techniques based on geospatial kriging to quantify sufficient sampling for thousands of 500 ms µECoG snapshots in human, monkey, and rat. We calculated a probably approximately correct (PAC) spacing based on kriging that would be required to predict µECoG fields at≤10% error for most cases (95% of observations).Main results. Kriging theory accurately explained the competing effects of electrode density and noise on predicting field potential. Across five frequency bands from 4-7 to 75-300 Hz, PAC spacing was sub-millimeter for auditory cortex in anesthetized and awake rats, and posterior superior temporal gyrus in anesthetized human. At 75-300 Hz, sub-millimeter PAC spacing was required in all species and cortical areas.Significance. PAC spacing accounted for the effect of signal-to-noise on prediction quality and was sensitive to the full distribution of non-stationary covariance states. Our results show that µECoG arrays should sample at sub-millimeter resolution for applications in diverse cortical areas and for noise resilience.
Trumpis, M; Chiang, C-H; Orsborn, AL; Bent, B; Li, J; Rogers, JA; Pesaran, B; Cogan, G; Viventi, J
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