Blood in the joint: effects of hemarthrosis on meniscus health and repair techniques.
Injury to the meniscus is common and frequently leads to the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Many times meniscus injuries occur coincident with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries and lead to a bloody joint effusion. Hemarthrosis, or bleeding into the joint, has been implicated in degeneration of joint tissues. The goal of this review paper is to understand the pathophysiology of blood-induced joint damage, the possible effects of blood on meniscus tissue, and the implications for current meniscus repair techniques that involve the introduction of blood-derived products into the joint. In this review, we illustrate the similarities in the pathophysiology of joint damage due to hemophilic arthropathy (HA) and osteoarthritis (OA). Although numerous studies have revealed the harmful effects of blood on cartilage and synovium, there is currently a gap in knowledge regarding the effects of hemarthrosis on meniscus tissue homeostasis, healing, and the development of PTOA following meniscus injury. Given that many meniscus repair techniques utilize blood-derived and marrow-derived products, it is essential to understand the effects of these factors on meniscus tissue and the whole joint organ to develop improved strategies to promote meniscus tissue repair and prevent PTOA development.
Lyons, LP; Weinberg, JB; Wittstein, JR; McNulty, AL
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