Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein associated disorder-optic neuritis: a comprehensive review of diagnosis and treatment.

Journal Article (Journal Article;Review)

Optic neuritis (ON) is the most common cause of acute optic neuropathy in patients younger than 50 years of age and is most frequently idiopathic or associated with multiple sclerosis. However, the discovery of aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G (IgG) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-IgG as biomarkers for two separate central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating diseases has revealed that neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMSOD) and MOG-IgG-associated disease (MOGAD) are responsible for clinically distinct subsets of ON. NMOSD-ON and MOGAD-ON both demonstrate tendencies for bilateral optic nerve involvement and often exhibit a relapsing course with the potential for devastating long-term visual outcomes. Early and accurate diagnosis is therefore essential. This review will summarize the current understanding of the clinical spectra of NMOSD and MOGAD, the radiographic and serological findings which support their diagnoses, and the current evidence behind various acute and long-term therapeutic strategies for ON related to these conditions. A particular emphasis is placed on a number of recent multi-centre randomized placebo-controlled trials, which provide the first level I evidence for long-term treatment of NMOSD.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Gospe, SM; Chen, JJ; Bhatti, MT

Published Date

  • March 2021

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 35 / 3

Start / End Page

  • 753 - 768

PubMed ID

  • 33323985

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC8026985

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1476-5454

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1038/s41433-020-01334-8


  • eng

Conference Location

  • England