Endoglin Targeting: Lessons Learned and Questions That Remain.
Approximately 30 years ago, endoglin was identified as a transforming growth factor (TGF)-β coreceptor with a crucial role in developmental biology and tumor angiogenesis. Its selectively high expression on tumor vessels and its correlation with poor survival in cancer patients led to the exploration of endoglin as a therapeutic target for cancer. The endoglin neutralizing antibody TRC105 (Carotuximab®, Tracon Pharmaceuticals (San Diego, CA, USA) was subsequently tested in a wide variety of preclinical cancer models before being tested in phase I-III clinical studies in cancer patients as both a monotherapy and in combination with other chemotherapeutic and anti-angiogenic therapies. The combined data of these studies have revealed new insights into the role of endoglin in angiogenesis and its expression and functional role on other cells in the tumor microenvironment. In this review, we will summarize the preclinical work, clinical trials and biomarker studies of TRC105 and explore what these studies have enabled us to learn and what questions remain unanswered.
Liu, Y; Paauwe, M; Nixon, AB; Hawinkels, LJAC
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