Essential roles of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex in different cardiac pathologies.
The dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC), situated at the sarcolemma dynamically remodels during cardiac disease. This review examines DGC remodeling as a common denominator in diseases affecting heart function and health. Dystrophin and the DGC serve as broad cytoskeletal integrators that are critical for maintaining stability of muscle membranes. The presence of pathogenic variants in genes encoding proteins of the DGC can cause absence of the protein and/or alterations in other complex members leading to muscular dystrophies. Targeted studies have allowed the individual functions of affected proteins to be defined. The DGC has demonstrated its dynamic function, remodeling under a number of conditions that stress the heart. Beyond genetic causes, pathogenic processes also impinge on the DGC, causing alterations in the abundance of dystrophin and associated proteins during cardiac insult such as ischemia-reperfusion injury, mechanical unloading, and myocarditis. When considering new therapeutic strategies, it is important to assess DGC remodeling as a common factor in various heart diseases. The DGC connects the internal F-actin-based cytoskeleton to laminin-211 of the extracellular space, playing an important role in the transmission of mechanical force to the extracellular matrix. The essential functions of dystrophin and the DGC have been long recognized. DGC based therapeutic approaches have been primarily focused on muscular dystrophies, however it may be a beneficial target in a number of disorders that affect the heart. This review provides an account of what we now know, and discusses how this knowledge can benefit persistent health conditions in the clinic.
Valera, IC; Wacker, AL; Hwang, HS; Holmes, C; Laitano, O; Landstrom, AP; Parvatiyar, MS
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