Integrated genomic analysis of survival outliers in glioblastoma.
Background: To elucidate molecular features associated with disproportionate survival of glioblastoma (GB) patients, we conducted deep genomic comparative analysis of a cohort of patients receiving standard therapy (surgery plus concurrent radiation and temozolomide); "GB outliers" were identified: long-term survivor of 33 months (LTS; n = 8) versus short-term survivor of 7 months (STS; n = 10). Methods: We implemented exome, RNA, whole genome sequencing, and DNA methylation for collection of deep genomic data from STS and LTS GB patients. Results: LTS GB showed frequent chromosomal gains in 4q12 (platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha and KIT) and 12q14.1 (cyclin-dependent kinase 4), and deletion in 19q13.33 (BAX, branched chain amino-acid transaminase 2, and cluster of differentiation 33). STS GB showed frequent deletion in 9p11.2 (forkhead box D4-like 2 and aquaporin 7 pseudogene 3) and 22q11.21 (Hypermethylated In Cancer 2). LTS GB showed 2-fold more frequent copy number deletions compared with STS GB. Gene expression differences showed the STS cohort with altered transcriptional regulators: activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)5a/b, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), and interferon-gamma (IFNG), and inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK1), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, and estrogen receptor (ESR)1. Expression-based biological concepts prominent in the STS cohort include metabolic processes, anaphase-promoting complex degradation, and immune processes associated with major histocompatibility complex class I antigen presentation; the LTS cohort features genes related to development, morphogenesis, and the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway. Whole genome methylation analyses showed that a methylation signature of 89 probes distinctly separates LTS from STS GB tumors. Conclusion: We posit that genomic instability is associated with longer survival of GB (possibly with vulnerability to standard therapy); conversely, genomic and epigenetic signatures may identify patients where up-front entry into alternative, targeted regimens would be a preferred, more efficacious management.
Peng, S; Dhruv, H; Armstrong, B; Salhia, B; Legendre, C; Kiefer, J; Parks, J; Virk, S; Sloan, AE; Ostrom, QT; Barnholtz-Sloan, JS; Tran, NL; Berens, ME
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