Composite Backward Differentiation Formula for the Bidomain Equations.
The bidomain equations have been widely used to model the electrical activity of cardiac tissue. While it is well-known that implicit methods have much better stability than explicit methods, implicit methods usually require the solution of a very large nonlinear system of equations at each timestep which is computationally prohibitive. In this work, we present two fully implicit time integration methods for the bidomain equations: the backward Euler method and a second-order one-step two-stage composite backward differentiation formula (CBDF2) which is an L-stable time integration method. Using the backward Euler method as fundamental building blocks, the CBDF2 scheme is easily implementable. After solving the nonlinear system resulting from application of the above two fully implicit schemes by a nonlinear elimination method, the obtained nonlinear global system has a much smaller size, whose Jacobian is symmetric and possibly positive definite. Thus, the residual equation of the approximate Newton approach for the global system can be efficiently solved by standard optimal solvers. As an alternative, we point out that the above two implicit methods combined with operator splittings can also efficiently solve the bidomain equations. Numerical results show that the CBDF2 scheme is an efficient time integration method while achieving high stability and accuracy.
Gao, X; Henriquez, CS; Ying, W
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