Impact of immunization programs on 11 childhood vaccine-preventable diseases in China: 1950–2018
To evaluate the achievements of China's immunization program between 1950 and 2018, we chose 11 vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) as representative notifiable diseases and used annual surveillance data obtained between 1950 and 2018 to derive disease incidence and mortality trends. Quasi-Poisson and polynomial regression models were used to estimate the impacts of specific vaccine programs, and life-table methods were used to calculate the loss of life expectancy, years of life lost, and loss of working years. The total notification number for the 11 VPDs was 211,866,000 from 1950 to 2018. The greatest number occurred in 1959, with a total incidence of 1,723 per million persons. From 1978 to 2018, a substantial decline was observed in the incidence of major infectious diseases. The incidence of pertussis fell 98% from 126.35 to 1.58 per million, and the incidences of measles, meningococcal meningitis, and Japanese encephalitis fell 99%, 99%, and 98%, respectively. The regression models showed that most of the 11 diseases exhibited dramatic declines in morbidity after their integration into the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), while varicella and paratyphoid fever, which were not integrated into the EPI, showed increased morbidity. From 1978 to 2018, the total life expectancy for the 11 VPDs increased by 0.79 years, and similar results were obtained for different age groups. China has had great success in controlling VPDs in recent decades, and improving vaccination coverage is a key aspect of controlling VPDs in China.
Pan, J; Wang, Y; Cao, L; Zhao, Q; Tang, S; Gong, W; Guo, L; Liu, Z; Wen, Z; Zheng, B; Wang, W
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