Childhood self-control forecasts the pace of midlife aging and preparedness for old age.
The ability to control one's own emotions, thoughts, and behaviors in early life predicts a range of positive outcomes in later life, including longevity. Does it also predict how well people age? We studied the association between self-control and midlife aging in a population-representative cohort of children followed from birth to age 45 y, the Dunedin Study. We measured children's self-control across their first decade of life using a multi-occasion/multi-informant strategy. We measured their pace of aging and aging preparedness in midlife using measures derived from biological and physiological assessments, structural brain-imaging scans, observer ratings, self-reports, informant reports, and administrative records. As adults, children with better self-control aged more slowly in their bodies and showed fewer signs of aging in their brains. By midlife, these children were also better equipped to manage a range of later-life health, financial, and social demands. Associations with children's self-control could be separated from their social class origins and intelligence, indicating that self-control might be an active ingredient in healthy aging. Children also shifted naturally in their level of self-control across adult life, suggesting the possibility that self-control may be a malleable target for intervention. Furthermore, individuals' self-control in adulthood was associated with their aging outcomes after accounting for their self-control in childhood, indicating that midlife might offer another window of opportunity to promote healthy aging.
Richmond-Rakerd, LS; Caspi, A; Ambler, A; d'Arbeloff, T; de Bruine, M; Elliott, M; Harrington, H; Hogan, S; Houts, RM; Ireland, D; Keenan, R; Knodt, AR; Melzer, TR; Park, S; Poulton, R; Ramrakha, S; Rasmussen, LJH; Sack, E; Schmidt, AT; Sison, ML; Wertz, J; Hariri, AR; Moffitt, TE
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