# Algebraic localization implies exponential localization in non-periodic insulators

Journal Article

Exponentially-localized Wannier functions are a basis of the Fermi projection of a Hamiltonian consisting of functions which decay exponentially quickly in space. In two and three spatial dimensions, it is well understood for periodic insulators that exponentially-localized Wannier functions exist if and only if there exists an orthonormal basis for the Fermi projection with finite second moment (i.e. all basis elements satisfy $\int |\boldsymbol{x}|^2 |w(\boldsymbol{x})|^2 \,\text{d}{\boldsymbol{x}} < \infty$). In this work, we establish a similar result for non-periodic insulators in two spatial dimensions. In particular, we prove that if there exists an orthonormal basis for the Fermi projection which satisfies $\int |\boldsymbol{x}|^{5 + \epsilon} |w(\boldsymbol{x})|^2 \,\text{d}{\boldsymbol{x}} < \infty$ for some $\epsilon > 0$ then there also exists an orthonormal basis for the Fermi projection which decays exponentially quickly in space. This result lends support to the Localization Dichotomy Conjecture for non-periodic systems recently proposed by Marcelli, Monaco, Moscolari, and Panati.

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### Duke Authors

### Cited Authors

- Lu, J; Stubbs, KD