Optimal pulse length of insonification for Piezo1 activation and intracellular calcium response.
Ultrasound (US) neuromodulation, especially sonogenetics, has been demonstrated with potential applications in noninvasive and targeted treatment of various neurological disorders. Despite the growing interest, the mechanism for US neuromodulation remains elusive, and the optimal condition for eliciting a neural response with minimal adverse effect has not been identified. Here, we investigate the Piezo1 activation and intracellular calcium response elicited by acoustical streaming induced shear stress under various US exposure conditions. We find that Piezo1 activation and resultant intracellular calcium response depend critically on shear stress amplitude and pulse length of the stimulation. Under the same insonification acoustic energy, we further identify an optical pulse length that leads to maximum cell deformation, Piezo1 activation, and calcium response with minimal injury, confirmed by numerical modeling of Piezo1 channel gating dynamics. Our results provide insight into the mechanism of ultrasonic activation of Piezo1 and highlight the importance of optimizing US exposure conditions in sonogenetics applications.
Liao, D; Hsiao, M-Y; Xiang, G; Zhong, P
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