A class of viral inducer of degradation of the necroptosis adaptor RIPK3 regulates virus-induced inflammation.
The vaccine strain against smallpox, vaccinia virus (VACV), is highly immunogenic yet causes relatively benign disease. These attributes are believed to be caused by gene loss in VACV. Using a targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen, we identified a viral inhibitor found in cowpox virus (CPXV) and other orthopoxviruses that bound to the host SKP1-Cullin1-F-box (SCF) machinery and the essential necroptosis kinase receptor interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3). This "viral inducer of RIPK3 degradation" (vIRD) triggered ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation of RIPK3 and inhibited necroptosis. In contrast to orthopoxviruses, the distantly related leporipoxvirus myxoma virus (MYXV), which infects RIPK3-deficient hosts, lacks a functional vIRD. Introduction of vIRD into VACV, which encodes a truncated and defective vIRD, enhanced viral replication in mice. Deletion of vIRD reduced CPXV-induced inflammation, viral replication, and mortality, which were reversed in RIPK3- and MLKL-deficient mice. Hence, vIRD-RIPK3 drives pathogen-host evolution and regulates virus-induced inflammation and pathogenesis.
Liu, Z; Nailwal, H; Rector, J; Rahman, MM; Sam, R; McFadden, G; Chan, FK-M
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