Extracardiac Abnormalities of Preload Reserve: Mechanisms Underlying Exercise Limitation in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction, Autonomic Dysfunction, and Liver Disease.
While many of the cardiac limitations to exercise performance are now well-characterized, extracardiac limitations to exercise performance have been less well recognized but are nevertheless important. We propose that abnormalities of cardiac preload reserve represents an under-recognized but common cause of exercise limitations. We further propose that mechanistic links exist between conditions as seemingly disparate as heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and pelvic venous compression/obstruction syndromes (eg, May-Thurner). We conclude that extracardiac abnormalities of preload reserve serve as a major pathophysiologic mechanism underlying these and other disease states.
Fudim, M; Sobotka, PA; Dunlap, ME
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