"Be a Man": The Role of Social Pressure in Eliciting Men's Aggressive Cognition.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

Threatening a man's manhood-but not a woman's womanhood-elicits aggression. In two studies, we found evidence that this aggression is related to the social pressure men experience to "be a man." In Study 1a, we conducted an exploratory factor analysis to isolate participants' (N = 195; M age = 19.92) differential motivations for conforming to gender norms. Study 1b then showed that pressure to be masculine moderates the relationship between gender identity threat and aggressive cognition for men. In Study 2a, we conducted a confirmatory factor analysis to validate the aforementioned scales with an age-diverse sample of men (N = 391; M age = 33.16, range = 18-56 years). Study 2b replicated Study 1b, most notably with younger men. In all, these findings reveal one pathway-the pressure men experience to be stereotypically masculine-that elicits aggressive cognition when under threat in a U.S. context.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Stanaland, A; Gaither, S

Published Date

  • November 2021

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 47 / 11

Start / End Page

  • 1596 - 1611

PubMed ID

  • 33504285

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1552-7433

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0146-1672

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1177/0146167220984298


  • eng