Nucleo-cytoplasmic Partitioning of ARF Proteins Controls Auxin Responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.
The phytohormone auxin plays crucial roles in nearly every aspect of plant growth and development. The auxin response factor (ARF) transcription factor family regulates auxin-responsive gene expression and exhibits nuclear localization in regions of high auxin responsiveness. Here we show that the ARF7 and ARF19 proteins accumulate in micron-sized assemblies within the cytoplasm of tissues with attenuated auxin responsiveness. We found that the intrinsically disordered middle region and the folded PB1 interaction domain of ARFs drive protein assembly formation. Mutation of a single lysine within the PB1 domain abrogates cytoplasmic assemblies, promotes ARF nuclear localization, and results in an altered transcriptome and morphological defects. Our data suggest a model in which ARF nucleo-cytoplasmic partitioning regulates auxin responsiveness, providing a mechanism for cellular competence for auxin signaling.
Powers, SK; Holehouse, AS; Korasick, DA; Schreiber, KH; Clark, NM; Jing, H; Emenecker, R; Han, S; Tycksen, E; Hwang, I; Sozzani, R; Jez, JM; Pappu, RV; Strader, LC
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