Pedagogical foundations of cybercivility in health professions education: a scoping review.

Journal Article (Systematic Review;Review;Journal Article)


Teaching cybercivility requires thoughtful attention to curriculum development and content delivery. Theories, models, and conceptual and theoretical frameworks (hereafter "tools") provide useful foundations for integrating new knowledge and skills into existing professional practice and education. We conducted this scoping review to identify tools used for teaching cybercivility in health professions education.


Using Arksey and O'Malley's scoping review framework, we searched six biomedical and educational databases and three grey literature databases for articles available in English published between January 1, 2000 and March 31, 2020. Following the PRISMA-ScR (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews), we screened and extracted relevant data, and reported the results of the search.


The search resulted in 2272 articles, with 8 articles included in this review after inclusion criteria were applied. Four articles (50%) were peer-reviewed journal papers while the other 4 (50%) were dissertations. Eleven unique tools were identified by this review: (1) Transpersonal Caring Theory, (2) Theory of Workplace Incivility, (3) Conceptualization of Incivility, (4) Media Ecology Theory, (5) Principlism, (6) Salmon's Five Stage Model of Online Learning, (7) Learner-Centered Educational Theory, (8) Gallant and Drinan's 4-Stage Model of Institutionalization of Academic Integrity, (9) Theory of Planned Behavior, (10) Communication Privacy Management Theory, and (11) Moral Development Theory. Based on the tools analyzed in our scoping review, we determined three features of cybercivility pedagogy to which the tools provided a guide: (1) behavioral manifestations, (2) academic integrity, and (3) digital professionalism.


The reviewed tools provide a pedagogical foundation and guidance for teaching various properties of cybercivility. Future studies should be expanded to include a broader literature body and non-English literature to provide the global perspective and global skills needed by a diverse population of learners.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • DE Gagne, JC; Koppel, PD; Kim, SS; Park, HK; Rushton, S

Published Date

  • January 30, 2021

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 21 / 1

Start / End Page

  • 79 -

PubMed ID

  • 33516204

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC7847571

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1472-6920

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1472-6920

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1186/s12909-021-02507-z


  • eng