Association between early postoperative nutritional supplement utilisation and length of stay in malnourished hip fracture patients.
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition in older hip fracture patients is associated with increased complication rates and mortality. As postoperative nutrition delivery is essential to surgical recovery, postoperative nutritional supplements including oral nutritional supplements or tube feeding formulas can improve postoperative outcomes in malnourished hip/femur fracture patients. The association between early postoperative nutritional supplements utilisation and hospital length of stay was assessed in malnourished hip/femur fracture patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of malnourished hip/femur fracture patients undergoing surgery from 2008 to 2018. Patients were identified through International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) and Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes and nutritional supplement utilisation via hospital charge codes. The primary outcome was hospital length of stay. Secondary outcomes included infectious complications, hospital mortality, ICU admission, and costs. Propensity matching (1:1) and univariable analysis were performed. RESULTS: Overall, 160 151 hip/femur fracture surgeries were identified with a coded-malnutrition prevalence of 8.7%. Early postoperative nutritional supplementation (by hospital day 1) occurred in 1.9% of all patients and only 4.9% of malnourished patients. Propensity score matching demonstrated early nutritional supplements were associated with significantly shorter length of stay (5.8 [6.6] days vs 7.6 [5.8] days; P<0.001) without increasing hospital costs. No association was observed between early nutritional supplementation and secondary outcomes. CONCLUSION: Malnutrition is underdiagnosed in hip/femur fracture patients, and nutritional supplementation is underutilised. Early nutritional supplementation was associated with a significantly shorter hospital stay without an increase in costs. Nutritional supplementation in malnourished hip/femur fracture patients could serve as a key target for perioperative quality improvement.
Williams, DGA; Ohnuma, T; Haines, KL; Krishnamoorthy, V; Raghunathan, K; Sulo, S; Cassady, BA; Hegazi, R; Wischmeyer, PE
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