The Role of Cavitation in Energy Delivery and Stone Damage During Laser Lithotripsy.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

Purpose: Although cavitation during laser lithotripsy (LL) contributes to the Moses effect, the impact of cavitation on stone damage is less clear. Using different laser settings, we investigate the role of cavitation bubbles in energy delivery and stone damage. Materials and Methods: The role of cavitation in laser energy delivery was characterized by using photodetector measurements synced with high-speed imaging for laser pulses of varying durations. BegoStone samples were treated with the laser fiber oriented perpendicularly in contact with the stone in water or in air to assess the impact of cavitation on crater formation. Crater volume and geometry were quantified by using optical coherence tomography. Further, the role of cavitation in stone damage was elucidated by treatment in water with the fiber oriented parallel to the stone surface and by photoelastic imaging. Results: Longer pulse durations resulted in higher energy delivery but smaller craters. Stones treated in water resulted in greater volume, wider yet shallower craters compared with those treated in air. Stones treated with the parallel fiber showed crater formation after 15 pulses, confirmed by high-speed imaging of the bubble collapse with the resultant stress field captured by photoelastic imaging. Conclusions: Despite improved energy delivery, the longer pulse mode produced smaller crater volume, suggesting additional processes secondary to photothermal ablation are involved in stone damage. Our critical observations of the difference in stone damage treated in water vs in air, combined with the crater formation by parallel fiber, suggest that cavitation is a contributor to stone damage during LL.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Ho, DS; Scialabba, D; Terry, RS; Ma, X; Chen, J; Sankin, GN; Xiang, G; Qi, R; Preminger, GM; Lipkin, ME; Zhong, P

Published Date

  • June 2021

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 35 / 6

Start / End Page

  • 860 - 870

PubMed ID

  • 33514285

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC8336231

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1557-900X

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1089/end.2020.0349


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States