Virus Control in Vaccinated Rhesus Macaques Is Associated with Neutralizing and Capturing Antibodies against the SHIV Challenge Virus but Not with V1V2 Vaccine-Induced Anti-V2 Antibodies Alone.
The role of vaccine-induced anti-V2 Abs was tested in three protection experiments in rhesus macaques. In an experiment using immunogens similar to those in the RV144 vaccine trial (Anti-envelope [Env]), nine rhesus macaques were coimmunized with gp16092TH023 DNA and SIV gag and gp120A244 and gp120MN proteins. In two V2-focused experiments (Anti-V2 and Anti-V2 Mucosal), nine macaques in each group were immunized with V1V292TH023 DNA, V1V2A244 and V1V2CasaeA2 proteins, and cyclic V2CaseA2 peptide. DNA and protein immunogens, formulated in Adjuplex, were given at 0, 4, 12, and 20 weeks, followed by intrarectal SHIVBaL.P4 challenges. Peak plasma viral loads (PVL) of 106-107 copies/ml developed in all nine sham controls. Overall, PVL was undetectable in one third of immunized macaques, and two animals tightly controlled the virus with the Anti-V2 Mucosal vaccine strategy. In the Anti-Env study, Abs that captured or neutralized SHIVBaL.P4 inversely correlated with PVL. Conversely, no correlation with PVL was found in the Anti-V2 experiments with nonneutralizing plasma Abs that only captured virus weakly. Titers of Abs against eight V1V2 scaffolds and cyclic V2 peptides were comparable between controllers and noncontrollers as were Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and Ab-dependent cell-mediated virus inhibition activities against SHIV-infected target cells and phagocytosis of gp120-coated beads. The Anti-Env experiment supports the role of vaccine-elicited neutralizing and nonneutralizing Abs in control of PVL. However, the two V2-focused experiments did not support a role for nonneutralizing V2 Abs alone in controlling PVL, as neither Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, Ab-dependent cell-mediated virus inhibition, nor phagocytosis correlated inversely with heterologous SHIVBaL.P4 infection.
Hessell, AJ; Li, L; Malherbe, DC; Barnette, P; Pandey, S; Sutton, W; Spencer, D; Wang, X-H; Gach, JS; Hunegnaw, R; Tuen, M; Jiang, X; Luo, CC; LaBranche, CC; Shao, Y; Montefiori, DC; Forthal, DN; Duerr, R; Robert-Guroff, M; Haigwood, NL; Gorny, MK
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