Assessment of pleural invasion and adhesion of lung tumors with dynamic chest radiography: A virtual clinical imaging study.
PURPOSE: Accurate preoperative assessment of tumor invasion/adhesion is crucial for planning appropriate operative procedures. Recent advances in digital radiography allow a motion analysis of lung tumors with dynamic chest radiography (DCR) with total exposure dose comparable to that of conventional chest radiography. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of preoperative evaluation of pleural invasion/adhesion of lung tumors with DCR through a virtual clinical imaging study, using a four-dimensional (4D) extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) computational phantom. METHODS: An XCAT phantom of an adult man (50th percentile in height and weight) with simulated respiratory and cardiac motions was generated to use as a virtual patient. To simulate lung tumors with and without pleural invasion, a 30-mm diameter tumor sphere was inserted into each lobe of the phantom. The virtual patient during respiration was virtually projected using an x-ray simulator in posteroanterior (PA) and oblique directions, and sequential bone suppression (BS) images were created. The measurement points (tumor, rib, and diaphragm) were automatically tracked on simulated images by a template matching technique. We calculated five quantitative metrics related to the movement distance and directions of the targeted tumor and evaluated whether DCR could distinguish between tumors with and without pleural invasion/adhesion. RESULTS: Precise tracking of the targeted tumor was achieved on the simulated BS images without undue influence of rib shadows. There was a significant difference in all five quantitative metrics between the lung tumors with and without pleural invasion both on the oblique and PA projection views (P < 0.05). Quantitative metrics related to the movement distance were effective for tumors in the middle and lower lobes, while, those related to the movement directions were effective for tumors close to the frontal chest wall on the oblique projection view. The oblique views were useful for the evaluation of the space between the chest wall and a moving tumor. CONCLUSION: DCR could help distinguish between tumors with and without pleural invasion/adhesion based on the two-dimensional movement distance and direction using oblique and PA projection views. With anticipated improved image: processing to evaluate the respiratory displacement of lung tumors in the upper lobe or behind the heart, DCR holds promise for clinical assessment of tumor invasion/adhesion in the parietal pleura.
Tanaka, R; Samei, E; Segars, WP; Abadi, E; Matsumoto, I; Tamura, M; Takata, M; Yamashiro, T
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