The World Federation of ADHD International Consensus Statement: 208 Evidence-based conclusions about the disorder.

Journal Article (Journal Article;Review)

BACKGROUND: Misconceptions about ADHD stigmatize affected people, reduce credibility of providers, and prevent/delay treatment. To challenge misconceptions, we curated findings with strong evidence base. METHODS: We reviewed studies with more than 2000 participants or meta-analyses from five or more studies or 2000 or more participants. We excluded meta-analyses that did not assess publication bias, except for meta-analyses of prevalence. For network meta-analyses we required comparison adjusted funnel plots. We excluded treatment studies with waiting-list or treatment as usual controls. From this literature, we extracted evidence-based assertions about the disorder. RESULTS: We generated 208 empirically supported statements about ADHD. The status of the included statements as empirically supported is approved by 80 authors from 27 countries and 6 continents. The contents of the manuscript are endorsed by 366 people who have read this document and agree with its contents. CONCLUSIONS: Many findings in ADHD are supported by meta-analysis. These allow for firm statements about the nature, course, outcome causes, and treatments for disorders that are useful for reducing misconceptions and stigma.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Faraone, SV; Banaschewski, T; Coghill, D; Zheng, Y; Biederman, J; Bellgrove, MA; Newcorn, JH; Gignac, M; Al Saud, NM; Manor, I; Rohde, LA; Yang, L; Cortese, S; Almagor, D; Stein, MA; Albatti, TH; Aljoudi, HF; Alqahtani, MMJ; Asherson, P; Atwoli, L; Bölte, S; Buitelaar, JK; Crunelle, CL; Daley, D; Dalsgaard, S; Döpfner, M; Espinet, S; Fitzgerald, M; Franke, B; Gerlach, M; Haavik, J; Hartman, CA; Hartung, CM; Hinshaw, SP; Hoekstra, PJ; Hollis, C; Kollins, SH; Sandra Kooij, JJ; Kuntsi, J; Larsson, H; Li, T; Liu, J; Merzon, E; Mattingly, G; Mattos, P; McCarthy, S; Mikami, AY; Molina, BSG; Nigg, JT; Purper-Ouakil, D; Omigbodun, OO; Polanczyk, GV; Pollak, Y; Poulton, AS; Rajkumar, RP; Reding, A; Reif, A; Rubia, K; Rucklidge, J; Romanos, M; Ramos-Quiroga, JA; Schellekens, A; Scheres, A; Schoeman, R; Schweitzer, JB; Shah, H; Solanto, MV; Sonuga-Barke, E; Soutullo, C; Steinhausen, H-C; Swanson, JM; Thapar, A; Tripp, G; van de Glind, G; Brink, WVD; Van der Oord, S; Venter, A; Vitiello, B; Walitza, S; Wang, Y

Published Date

  • September 2021

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 128 /

Start / End Page

  • 789 - 818

PubMed ID

  • 33549739

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC8328933

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1873-7528

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2021.01.022


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States