Therapeutic Approaches for the No-Option Refractory Angina Patient.
The combination of an aging population and improved survival rates among patients with coronary artery disease has resulted in an increase in the number of patients with refractory angina or anginal equivalent symptoms despite maximal medical therapy. Patients with refractory angina are often referred to the cardiac catheterization laboratory; however, they have often exhausted conventional revascularization options; thus, this population is often deemed as having "no options." We review the definition, prevalence, outcomes, therapeutic options, and treatment considerations for no-option refractory angina patients and focus on novel therapies for this complex and challenging population. We propose a multidisciplinary team approach for the evaluation and management of patients with refractory angina, ideally in a designated clinic. The severe limitations and symptomatology experienced by these patients highlight the need for additional research into the development of innovative treatments.
Povsic, TJ; Henry, TD; Ohman, EM
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