Supplemental dietary full-fatted and defatted Desmodesmus sp. exerted similar effects on growth performance, gut health, and excreta hydrothermal liquefaction of broiler chicks
This study determined effects of full-fatted (C046, 41% crude protein) and lipid extracted (LEA, 39% crude protein) microalgae Desmodesmus sp. on growth performance, gut health, and excreta hydrothermal liquefaction of broiler chickens. Two experiments were conducted by feeding day-old Cornish male chicks: 1) a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control) 2) control +5% C046, or 3) control +5% LEA for 2 weeks. Growth performance was measured weekly in both experiments. Blood, liver, and duodenum samples of chickens were collected for biochemical analyses, and excreta samples were collected for hydrothermal liquefaction (300 °C, 60 min) at the end of Experiment 2. Compared with the control, supplemental dietary C046 and LEA enhanced average daily gain (13% to 40%, p < 0.05) in both experiments, and improved feed efficiency (15% and 11%, p < 0.01) in Experiment 2. The C046 and LEA diets enhanced the duodenum (19% to –2 fold, p < 0.05), but decreased the liver (17 to 78%, p < 0.05) mRNA abundances of interleukins-1, 6 and 8 and (or) tumor necrosis factor-α, respectively, compared with the controls. Meanwhile, the two types of biomass enhanced the protein amounts of claudin-1 in the duodenum (5–34%, p < 0.05) than the controls. Hydrothermal liquefaction of the excreta derived from the three diets showed no major differences in total bio-crude oil (average of 23%), hydrochar yield (average of 12%), or elemental compositions. However, the heating values of the resultant two bio-crude oils from the microalgae-fed chicken excreta (average of 34 MJ/kg) were 16% greater than those from the control chickens (29 MJ/kg). In conclusion, supplementing the full- and de-fatted Desmodesmus sp. microalgal biomass in the starter diets for broiler chickens produced largely similar improvements of growth performance, gut health, and excreta-derived oil quality.
Sun, T; Wang, K; Wyman, B; Sudibyo, H; Liu, G; Beal, C; Manning, S; Johnson, ZI; Aydemir, TB; Tester, JW; Lei, XG
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