Functional repair of critically sized femoral defects treated with bioinspired titanium gyroid-sheet scaffolds.
Despite the innate ability for bone to remodel and repair, its regeneration has a limit. In these cases of critically sized bone defects (CSBD), the bone deficit must be repaired using reconstructive techniques that support immediate load bearing and encourage bone bridging across the defect. High-strength porous titanium implants offer a solution for treatment of CSBD in which the scaffold can support physiological loads, provide a matrix to guide ingrowth, and carry graft materials and/or biologics. Fabrication of titanium meta-materials via additive manufacturing (AM) has unlocked the potential to modulate mechanical and biological performance to achieve a combination of properties previously unachievable. Meta-material scaffolds with topology based on triply periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS) have gained increasing interest for use in biomedical applications due to their bioinspired nature. Despite enthusiasm for TPMS-based titanium scaffolds due to their high strength to stiffness ratio, high permeability, and curvature similar to trabecular bone, there is little preclinical evidence to support their in vivo response in bone. The present study sought to evaluate the performance of gyroid-sheet titanium scaffolds produced via AM to repair a critically size femoral cortical bone defect in rats. Empty gyroid-sheet scaffolds were shown to repair segmental defects with up to 38% of torsional strength and 54% torsional stiffness of the intact femur (control) at 12-weeks. Gyroid-sheet scaffolds carrying recombinant bone morphogenic protein-2 demonstrated bridging bone growth across the length of the defect, with torsional strength and stiffness superior to that of the intact controls.
Kelly, CN; Lin, AS; Leguineche, KE; Shekhar, S; Walsh, WR; Guldberg, RE; Gall, K
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