Survival outcomes in patients with chemotherapy-naive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer treated with enzalutamide or abiraterone acetate.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the comparative effectiveness of enzalutamide and abiraterone in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is limited to meta-analyses of randomized trials that exclude patients with significant comorbidities. We evaluated overall survival (OS) in patients with chemotherapy-naive mCRPC treated with enzalutamide or abiraterone acetate (abiraterone) in a real-world single payer setting. METHODS: A retrospective analysis (4/1/2014-3/31/2018) of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) database was conducted. Patients with mCRPC had ≥1 pharmacy claim for enzalutamide or abiraterone (first claim date = index date) following disease progression on surgical/medical castration, without chemotherapy <12 months prior to index date. Patients had continuous VHA enrollment for ≥12 months pre-index date and were followed until death, disenrollment, or end of study. Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models examined the OS treatment effect. RESULTS: Patients with chemotherapy-naive mCRPC (N = 3174; enzalutamide, n = 1229; abiraterone, n = 1945) had mean ages of 74 and 73 years, respectively. Median follow-up was 18.27 and 19.07 months with enzalutamide and abiraterone, respectively. Enzalutamide-treated patients had longer median treatment duration than abiraterone-treated patients (9.93 vs 8.47 months, respectively, p = 0.0008). After baseline comorbidity adjustment, enzalutamide-treated patients had a 16% reduced risk of death (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.76-0.94; p = 0.0012). For patients who remained on first line-therapy only, enzalutamide-treated patients had improved OS versus abiraterone-treated patients (HR = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.62-0.82). Enzalutamide-treated patients who crossed over to abiraterone had a comparable risk of death versus abiraterone-treated patients who crossed over to enzalutamide (HR = 1.10; 95% CI, 0.89-1.35). These results were confirmed by sensitivity analysis, which considered prognostic variables. CONCLUSIONS: Retrospective analysis of the VHA database indicated that chemotherapy-naive patients with mCRPC initiating therapy with enzalutamide had improved survival versus abiraterone.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Tagawa, ST; Ramaswamy, K; Huang, A; Mardekian, J; Schultz, NM; Wang, L; Sandin, R; Lechpammer, S; George, DJ

Published Date

  • December 2021

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 24 / 4

Start / End Page

  • 1032 - 1040

PubMed ID

  • 33612825

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC8616757

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1476-5608

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1038/s41391-021-00318-3


  • eng

Conference Location

  • England