Survival Predictors of Heart Rate Variability After Myocardial Infarction With and Without Low Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction.
BACKGROUND: Heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate (HR) dynamics are used to predict the survival probability of patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but the association has been established in patients with mixed levels of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether the survival predictors of HRV and HR dynamics depend on LVEF after AMI. METHODS: We studied 687 post-AMI patients including 147 with LVEF ≤35% and 540 with LVEF >35%, of which 23 (16%) and 22 (4%) died during the 25 month follow-up period, respectively. None had an implanted cardioverter-defibrillator. From baseline 24 h ECG, the standard deviation (SDNN), root mean square of successive difference (rMSSD), percentage of successive difference >50 ms (pNN50) of normal-to-normal R-R interval, ultra-low (ULF), very-low (VLF), low (LF), and high (HF) frequency power, deceleration capacity (DC), short-term scaling exponent (α1), non-Gaussianity index (λ25 s), and the amplitude of cyclic variation of HR (Acv) were calculated. RESULTS: The predictors were categorized into three clusters; DC, SDNN, α1, ULF, VLF, LF, and Acv as Cluster 1, λ25 s independently as Cluster 2, and rMSSD, pNN50, and HF as Cluster 3. In univariate analyses, mortality was best predicted by indices belonging to Cluster 1 regardless of LVEF. In multivariate analyses, however, mortality in patients with low LVEF was best predicted by the combinations of Cluster 1 predictors or Cluster 1 and 3 predictors, whereas in patients without low LVEF, it was best predicted by the combinations of Cluster 1 and 2 predictors. CONCLUSION: The mortality risk in post-AMI patients with low LVEF is predicted by indices reflecting decreased HRV or HR responsiveness and cardiac parasympathetic dysfunction, whereas in patients without low LVEF, the risk is predicted by a combination of indices that reflect decreased HRV or HR responsiveness and indicator that reflects abrupt large HR changes suggesting sympathetic involvement.
Hayano, J; Ueda, N; Kisohara, M; Yuda, E; Carney, RM; Blumenthal, JA
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