Design, synthesis, and structure activity relationship analysis of new betulinic acid derivatives as potent HIV inhibitors.
Prior modification of betulinic acid (1), a natural product lead with promising anti-HIV activity, produced 3-O-(3',3'-dimethylsuccinyl)betulinic acid (bevirimat, 3), the first-in-class HIV maturation inhibitor. After 3-resistant variants were found during Phase I and IIa clinical trials, further modification of 3 produced 4 with improved activity against wild-type and 3-resistant HIV-1. In continued efforts to optimize 1, 63 final products have now been designed, synthesized, and evaluated for anti-HIV-1 replication activity against HIV-1NL4-3 infected MT-4 cell lines. Five known and 21 new derivatives were as or more potent than 3 (EC50 0.065 μM), while eight new derivatives were as or more potent than 4 (EC50 0.019 μM). These derivatives feature expanded structural diversity and chemical space that may improve the antiviral activity and address the growing resistance crisis. Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) correlations were thoroughly analyzed, and a 3D Quantitative SAR model with high predictability was constructed to facilitate further rational design and development of new potent derivatives.
Zhao, Y; Chen, C-H; Morris-Natschke, SL; Lee, K-H
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