Deep brain stimulation and electromagnetic interference.
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has evolved into an approved and efficacious treatment for movement, obsessive-compulsive, and epilepsy disorders that are refractory to medical therapy, with current investigation into other disease conditions. However, there are unintentional and intentional sources of external electromagnetic interference (EMI) that can lead to either malfunctioning or damaged DBS devices, as well as injury to human tissue. Comprehensive studies and guidelines on such topics in the medical literature are scarce. Herein, we review the principles behind EMI, as well as the various potential sources of interference, both unintentional (e.g. stray EMI fields) and intentional (e.g. MRI scans, "brainjacking"). Additionally, we employ the Manufacturer and User Device Facility Experience (MAUDE) database to assess real-world instances of EMI (e.g., airport body scanners, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and electrosurgery) affecting DBS devices commonly implanted in the United States (US).
Rahimpour, S; Kiyani, M; Hodges, SE; Turner, DA
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)