Gut Microbiome over a Lifetime and the Association with Hypertension.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Microorganisms living within an ecosystem create microbial communities and play key roles in ecosystem functioning. During their lifespan, humans share their bodies with a variety of microorganisms. More than 10-100 trillion symbiotic microorganisms live on and within human beings, and the majority of these microorganisms populate the distal ileum and colon (referred to as the gut microbiota). Interactions between the gut microbiota and the host involve signaling via chemical neurotransmitters and metabolites, neuronal pathways, and the immune system. Hypertension is a complex and heterogeneous pathophenotype. A reductionist approach that assumes that all patients who have the same signs of a disease share a common disease mechanism and thus should be treated similarly is insufficient for optimal blood pressure management. Herein, we have highlighted the contribution of the gut microbiome to blood pressure regulation in humans. RECENT FINDINGS: Gut dysbiosis-an imbalance in the composition and function of the gut microbiota-has been shown to be associated with hypertension. Gut dysbiosis occurs via environmental pressures, including caesarean section, antibiotic use, dietary changes, and lifestyle changes over a lifetime. This review highlights how gut dysbiosis may affect a host's blood pressure over a lifetime. The review also clarifies future challenges in studies of associations between the gut microbiome and hypertension.
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