A Review of the State of the Science of HIV and Stigma: Context, Conceptualization, Measurement, Interventions, Gaps, and Future Priorities.

Journal Article (Review;Journal Article)


Stigma is a fundamental cause of health inequities. As such, stigma is a major barrier to HIV prevention, care, and treatment. This review will examine the concept of stigma, explicating the mechanisms of action of HIV-related stigma while also examining intersectional stigma and structural stigma. Instruments to measure HIV-related stigma and its mechanisms of action, as well as stigma enacted and experienced by HIV health care providers, will also be reviewed. This article will conclude with a review of stigma interventions, gaps in the literature, and priorities for future HIV, intersectional, and structural stigma research.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Relf, MV; L Holzemer, W; Holt, L; Nyblade, L; Ellis Caiola, C

Published Date

  • May 1, 2021

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 32 / 3

Start / End Page

  • 392 - 407

PubMed ID

  • 33654005

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC9208366

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1552-6917

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1055-3290

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1097/jnc.0000000000000237


  • eng