3-D Ultrasound Imaging Using Helicoid Array Transducers.
Real-time 3-D intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) can enable faster imaging of surfaces orthogonal to the transducer, such as the pulmonary vein (PV) antra and cardiac valve annuli. However, the requirement for a 2-D grid of individually wired elements makes a traditional matrix array challenging to implement within an intravenous catheter. Helicoid array transducers are linear array transducers twisted about their long axis, allowing imaging of different elevation slices using sub-apertures. In this work, we examined the 3-D imaging characteristics of helicoid array transducers through simulations using Field II software and experimental measurements. We report results for varying transducer parameters, such as twist rate and sub-aperture size. We also discuss design considerations for these imaging parameters as they pertain to volumetric imaging of the heart.
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