Time-Resolved Passive Cavitation Mapping Using the Transient Angular Spectrum Approach.
Passive cavitation mapping (PCM), which generates images using bubble acoustic emission signals, has been increasingly used for monitoring and guiding focused ultrasound surgery (FUS). PCM can be used as an adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging to provide crucial information on the safety and efficacy of FUS. The most widely used algorithm for PCM is delay-and-sum (DAS). One of the major limitations of DAS is its suboptimal computational efficiency. Although frequency-domain DAS can partially resolve this issue, such an algorithm is not suitable for imaging the evolution of bubble activity in real time and for cases in which cavitation events occur asynchronously. This study investigates a transient angular spectrum (AS) approach for PCM. The working principle of this approach is to backpropagate the received signal to the domain of interest and reconstruct the spatial-temporal wavefield encoded with the bubble location and collapse time. The transient AS approach is validated using an in silico model and water bath experiments. It is found that the transient AS approach yields similar results to DAS, but it is one order of magnitude faster. The results obtained by this study suggest that the transient AS approach is promising for fast and accurate PCM.
Li, M; Gu, J; Vu, T; Sankin, G; Zhong, P; Yao, J; Jing, Y
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