Interactions between gut microbiota and metabolites modulate cytokine network imbalances in women with unexplained miscarriage.
A dysregulation of cytokine networks has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of unexplained pregnancy loss. Gut microbiota affects host immune response and induces an imbalance in cytokine levels. However, how gut microbial dysbiosis disturbs cellular immune function in miscarriage remains inconclusive. Here we report that IL-2, IL-17A, IL-17F, TNF-α, and IFN-γ are significantly increased in serum of miscarriage patients. Fecal microbiome analyses indicate that microbial diversity and the relative abundances of Prevotella_1, Prevotellaceae_UCG_003 and Selenomonas_1 are significantly reduced in the cases. Correlation analyses indicate that some microbe-associated metabolites are positively associated with changes in levels of Th1/Th17 cytokines in the miscarriage group. Moreover, we identify that imidazolepropionic acid and 1,4-methylimidazoleacetic acid are associated with subsequent recurrent miscarriage. Our study highlights the network among gut microbiota, fecal metabolites and Th1/Th17-mediated immune response in miscarriage patients and explores the potential predictive values of two fecal metabolites for recurrent miscarriages.
Liu, Y; Chen, H; Feng, L; Zhang, J
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