PD-1 and PD-L1 Expression in Cardiac Transplantation.
Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), a transmembrane protein and member of the CD28 T cell family is associated with lymphocyte activation1. PD-L1 expression is upregulated on activated antigen presenting cells such as monocytes, myeloid and dendritic cells2. When bound to its cognate receptor programmed cell death (PD-1), inhibition of immune responses including downregulation of T cell proliferation occurs3. Mechanistically, such inhibition would be hypothetically favorable in the setting of a transplanted organ undergoing allograft rejection. However, there is a paucity of data addressing the role of PD-L1 and PD-1 expression in the human transplanted heart.
Bishawi, M; Bowles, D; Pla, MM; Oakes, F; Chiang, Y; Schroder, J; Milano, C; Glass, C
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