Disparities in Sources of Added Sugars and High Glycemic Index Foods in Diets of US Children, 2011-2016.

Journal Article (Journal Article)


Added sugars and high glycemic index (GI) foods might play a role in cardiometabolic pathogenesis. Our study aimed to describe the top sources of added sugars and types of high GI foods in diets of children by race/ethnicity.


We examined data for 3,112 children, aged 6 to 11 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2011 to 2016. Mean intake was estimated and linear regression models tested for differences by race/ethnicity. Population proportions for food sources were created and ranked, accounting for survey weighting when appropriate.


Asian American and Mexican American children had the lowest reported added sugar intake. Cereals were observed to contribute highly to added sugar intake. Soft drinks did not contribute as much added sugar intake for Asian American children as it did for children of other races/ethnicities. Asian American children consumed significantly more high GI foods than other groups. Types of high GI foods differed meaningfully across racial/ethnic groups (ie, Mexican American: burritos/tacos; other Hispanic, White, and Black: pizza; Asian American: rice). Rice accounted for 37% of total high GI foods consumed by Asian American children.


Sources of added sugars and types of high GI foods in children's diets vary across racial/ethnic groups. Targeting foods identified as top sources of added sugars for all race/ethnicities and focusing on substitution of whole grains may reduce obesity, diabetes, and related cardiometabolic risk more equitably.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Russo, RG; Peters, BA; Salcedo, V; Wang, VH; Kwon, SC; Wu, B; Yi, S

Published Date

  • November 2020

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 17 /

Start / End Page

  • E139 -

PubMed ID

  • 33155971

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC7665514

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1545-1151

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1545-1151

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.5888/pcd17.200091


  • eng