Adaptive and maladaptive roles for ChREBP in the liver and pancreatic islets.
Excessive sugar consumption is a contributor to the worldwide epidemic of cardiometabolic disease. Understanding mechanisms by which sugar is sensed and regulates metabolic processes may provide new opportunities to prevent and treat these epidemics. Carbohydrate Responsive-Element Binding Protein (ChREBP) is a sugar-sensing transcription factor that mediates genomic responses to changes in carbohydrate abundance in key metabolic tissues. Carbohydrate metabolites activate the canonical form of ChREBP, ChREBP-alpha, which stimulates production of a potent, constitutively active ChREBP isoform called ChREBP-beta. Carbohydrate metabolites and other metabolic signals may also regulate ChREBP activity via posttranslational modifications including phosphorylation, acetylation, and O-GlcNAcylation that can affect ChREBP's cellular localization, stability, binding to cofactors, and transcriptional activity. In this review, we discuss mechanisms regulating ChREBP activity and highlight phenotypes and controversies in ChREBP gain- and loss-of-function genetic rodent models focused on the liver and pancreatic islets.
Katz, LS; Baumel-Alterzon, S; Scott, DK; Herman, MA
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