Spectrum of Systemic Auto-Inflammatory Diseases in India: A Multi-Centric Experience.

Journal Article (Journal Article;Multicenter Study)

Background: Systemic autoinflammatory diseases (SAID) are rare inherited disorders involving genes regulating innate immune signaling and are characterized by periodic or chronic multi-systemic inflammation. Objective: To describe spectrum of clinical, immunological, molecular features, and outcomes of patients with SAID in India. Methods: Request to share data was sent to multiple centers in India that are involved in care and management of patients with Inborn Errors of Immunity. Six centers provided requisite data that were compiled and analyzed. Results: Data on 107 patients with SAID were collated-of these, 29 patients were excluded due to unavailability of complete information. Twelve patients (15%) had type 1 interferonopathies, 21 (26%) had diseases affecting inflammasomes, 30 patients (41%) had non-inflammasome related conditions and 1five patients (19%) had Periodic Fever, Aphthous Stomatitis, Pharyngitis, Adenitis (PFAPA). Type1 interferonopathies identified in the cohort included patients with Deficiency of Adenosine Deaminase 2 (DADA2) (six patients; five families); STING-associated vasculopathy infantile-onset (SAVI) (three patients, one family); Spondyloenchondro-dysplasia with Immune Dysregulation (SPENCD) (two patients). Diseases affecting inflammasomes include Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency (eight patients); Cryopyrin-Associated Periodic Syndromes (CAPS) (seven patients); NLR Family, Pyrin domain-containing 12 (NLRP12) (two patients); Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) (two patients); Autoinflammation and PLCG2-associated antibody deficiency and immune dysregulation (APLAID) (two patients). TNF receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) (three patients); A20 haploinsufficiency (four patients); Deficiency of Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist (DIRA) (two patients) were categorized as non-inflammasome related conditions. There were significant delays in diagnosis Corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive agents were used for treatment as anti-IL-1 drugs and other biological agents were and still are not available in India. Eight (16.3%) patients had so far succumbed to their illness. Conclusions: This is the first nationwide cohort of patients with SAID from India. Clinical manifestations were diverse. Overlapping of clinical features with other relatively common rheumatological disorders often resulted in delays in diagnosis. More nationwide efforts are needed to enhance awareness of SAID among health care professionals and there is an urgent need to make targeted immunotherapies universally available.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Suri, D; Rawat, A; Jindal, AK; Vignesh, P; Gupta, A; Pilania, RK; Joshi, V; Arora, K; Kumrah, R; Anjani, G; Aggarwal, A; Phadke, S; Aboobacker, FN; George, B; Edison, ES; Desai, M; Taur, P; Gowri, V; Pandrowala, AA; Bhattad, S; Kanakia, S; Gottorno, M; Ceccherini, I; Almeida de Jesus, A; Goldbach-Mansky, R; Hershfield, MS; Singh, S

Published Date

  • 2021

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 12 /

Start / End Page

  • 630691 -

PubMed ID

  • 33815380

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC8017183

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1664-3224

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.3389/fimmu.2021.630691


  • eng

Conference Location

  • Switzerland