Prostate Cancer Detection Using 3-D Shear Wave Elasticity Imaging.
Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) B-mode imaging provides insufficient sensitivity and specificity for prostate cancer (PCa) targeting when used for biopsy guidance. Shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) is an elasticity imaging technique that has been commercially implemented and is sensitive and specific for PCa. We have developed a SWEI system capable of 3-D data acquisition using a dense acoustic radiation force (ARF) push approach that leads to enhanced shear wave signal-to-noise ratio compared with that of the commercially available SWEI systems and facilitates screening of the entire gland before biopsy. Additionally, we imaged and assessed 36 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy using 3-D SWEI and determined a shear wave speed threshold separating PCa from healthy prostate tissue with sensitivities and specificities akin to those for multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging fusion biopsy. The approach measured the mean shear wave speed in each prostate region to be 4.8 m/s (Young's modulus E = 69.1 kPa) in the peripheral zone, 5.3 m/s (E = 84.3 kPa) in the central gland and 6.0 m/s (E = 108.0 kPa) for PCa with statistically significant (p < 0.0001) differences among all regions. Three-dimensional SWEI receiver operating characteristic analyses identified a threshold of 5.6 m/s (E = 94.1 kPa) to separate PCa from healthy tissue with a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and area under the curve (AUC) of 81%, 82%, 69%, 89% and 0.84, respectively. Additionally, a shear wave speed ratio was assessed to normalize for tissue compression and patient variability, which yielded a threshold of 1.11 to separate PCa from healthy prostate tissue and was accompanied by a substantial increase in specificity, PPV and AUC, where the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and AUC were 75%, 90%, 79%, 88% and 0.90, respectively. This work illustrates the feasibility of using 3-D SWEI data to detect and localize PCa and demonstrates the benefits of normalizing for applied compression during data acquisition for use in biopsy targeting studies.
Morris, DC; Chan, DY; Palmeri, ML; Polascik, TJ; Foo, W-C; Nightingale, KR
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