Transcriptional and Immunologic Correlates of Response to Pandemic Influenza Vaccine in Aviremic, HIV-Infected Children.
People living with HIV (PWH) often exhibit poor responses to influenza vaccination despite effective combination anti-retroviral (ART) mediated viral suppression. There exists a paucity of data in identifying immune correlates of influenza vaccine response in context of HIV infection that would be useful in improving its efficacy in PWH, especially in younger individuals. Transcriptomic data were obtained by microarray from whole blood isolated from aviremic pediatric and adolescent HIV-infected individuals (4-25 yrs) given two doses of Novartis/H1N1 09 vaccine during the pandemic H1N1 influenza outbreak. Supervised clustering and gene set enrichment identified contrasts between individuals exhibiting high and low antibody responses to vaccination. High responders exhibited hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers >1:40 post-first dose and 4-fold increase over baseline. Baseline molecular profiles indicated increased gene expression in metabolic stress pathways in low responders compared to high responders. Inflammation-related and interferon-inducible gene expression pathways were higher in low responders 3 wks post-vaccination. The broad age range and developmental stage of participants in this study prompted additional analysis by age group (e.g. <13yrs and ≥13yrs). This analysis revealed differential enrichment of gene pathways before and after vaccination in the two age groups. Notably, CXCR5, a homing marker expressed on T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, was enriched in high responders (>13yrs) following vaccination which was accompanied by peripheral Tfh expansion. Our results comprise a valuable resource of immune correlates of vaccine response to pandemic influenza in HIV infected children that may be used to identify favorable targets for improved vaccine design in different age groups.
de Armas, LR; George, V; Filali-Mouhim, A; Steel, C; Parmigiani, A; Cunningham, CK; Weinberg, A; Trautmann, L; Sekaly, R-P; Cameron, MJ; Pahwa, S
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