Electronic Health Record-Embedded Individualized Pain Plans for Emergency Department Treatment of Vaso-occlusive Episodes in Adults With Sickle Cell Disease: Protocol for a Preimplementation and Postimplementation Study.
BACKGROUND: Individuals living with sickle cell disease often require aggressive treatment of pain associated with vaso-occlusive episodes in the emergency department. Frequently, pain relief is poor. The 2014 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute evidence-based guidelines recommended an individualized treatment and monitoring protocol to improve pain management of vaso-occlusive episodes. OBJECTIVE: This study will implement an electronic health record-embedded individualized pain plan with provider and patient access in the emergency departments of 8 US academic centers to improve pain treatment for adult patients with sickle cell disease. This study will assess the overall effects of electronic health record-embedded individualized pain plans on improving patient and provider outcomes associated with pain treatment in the emergency department setting and explore barriers and facilitators to the implementation process. METHODS: A preimplementation and postimplementation study is being conducted by all 8 sites that are members of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded Sickle Cell Disease Implementation Consortium. Adults with sickle cell disease aged 18 to 45 years who had a visit to a participating emergency department for vaso-occlusive episodes within 90 days prior to enrollment will be eligible for inclusion. Patients will be enrolled in the clinic or remotely. The target analytical sample size of this study is 160 patient participants (20 per site) who have had an emergency department visit for vaso-occlusive episode treatment at participating emergency departments during the study period. Each site is expected to enroll approximately 40 participants to reach the analytical sample size. The electronic health record-embedded individualized pain plans will be written by the patient's sickle cell disease provider, and sites will work with the local informatics team to identify the best method to build the electronic health record-embedded individualized pain plan with patient and provider access. Each site will adopt required patient and provider implementation strategies and can choose to adopt optional strategies to improve the uptake and sustainability of the intervention. The study is informed by the Technology Acceptance Model 2 and the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance framework. Provider and patient baseline survey, follow-up survey within 96 hours of an emergency department vaso-occlusive episode visit, and selected qualitative interviews within 2 weeks of an emergency department visit will be performed to assess the primary outcome, patient-perceived quality of emergency department pain treatment, and additional implementation and intervention outcomes. Electronic health record data will be used to analyze individualized pain plan adherence and additional secondary outcomes, such as hospital admission and readmission rates. RESULTS: The study is currently enrolling study participants. The active implementation period is 18 months. CONCLUSIONS: This study proposes a structured, framework-informed approach to implement electronic health record-embedded individualized pain plans with both patient and provider access in routine emergency department practice. The results of the study will inform the implementation of electronic health record-embedded individualized pain plans at a larger scale outside of Sickle Cell Disease Implementation Consortium centers. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04584528; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04584528. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/24818.
Luo, L; King, AA; Carroll, Y; Baumann, AA; Brambilla, D; Carpenter, CR; Colla, J; Gibson, RW; Gollan, S; Hall, G; Klesges, L; Kutlar, A; Lyon, M; Melvin, CL; Norell, S; Mueller, M; Potter, MB; Richesson, R; Richardson, LD; Ryan, G; Siewny, L; Treadwell, M; Zun, L; Armstrong-Brown, J; Cox, L; Tanabe, P
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