The Range of Cardiogenic Shock Survival by Clinical Stage: Data From the Critical Care Cardiology Trials Network Registry.
OBJECTIVES: Cardiogenic shock presents with variable severity. Categorizing cardiogenic shock into clinical stages may improve risk stratification and patient selection for therapies. We sought to determine whether a structured implementation of the 2019 Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions clinical cardiogenic shock staging criteria that is ascertainable in clinical registries discriminates mortality in a contemporary population with or at-risk for cardiogenic shock. DESIGN: We developed a pragmatic application of the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions cardiogenic shock staging criteria-A (at-risk), B (beginning), C (classic cardiogenic shock), D (deteriorating), or E (extremis)-and examined outcomes by stage. SETTING: The Critical Care Cardiology Trials Network is an investigator-initiated multicenter research collaboration coordinated by the TIMI Study Group (Boston, MA). Consecutive admissions with or at-risk for cardiogenic shock during two annual 2-month collection periods (2017-2019) were analyzed. PATIENTS: Patients with or at-risk for cardiogenic shock. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of 8,240 CICU admissions reviewed, 1,991 (24%) had or were at-risk for cardiogenic shock. Distributions across the five stages were as follows: A: 33%; B: 7%; C: 16%; D: 23%; and E: 21%. Overall in-hospital mortality among patients with established cardiogenic shock was 39%; however, mortality varied from only 15.8% to 32.1% to 62.5% across stages C, D, and E (Cochran-Armitage ptrend < 0.0001). The Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions stages improved mortality prediction beyond the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment and Intra-Aortic Balloon Pumpin Cardiogenic Shock II scores. CONCLUSIONS: Although overall mortality in cardiogenic shock remains high, it varies considerably based on clinical stage, identifying stage C as relatively lower risk. We demonstrate a pragmatic adaptation of the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions cardiogenic shock stages that effectively stratifies mortality risk and could be leveraged for future clinical research.
Lawler, PR; Berg, DD; Park, J-G; Katz, JN; Baird-Zars, VM; Barsness, GW; Bohula, EA; Carnicelli, AP; Chaudhry, S-P; Jentzer, JC; Menon, V; Metkus, T; Nativi-Nicolau, J; Phreaner, N; Sinha, SS; Teuteberg, JJ; van Diepen, S; Morrow, DA; Critical Care Cardiology Trials Network Investigators,
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