Development and Validation of Machine Learning Models to Predict Admission From Emergency Department to Inpatient and Intensive Care Units.
STUDY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop and validate 2 machine learning models that use historical and current-visit patient data from electronic health records to predict the probability of patient admission to either an inpatient unit or ICU at each hour (up to 24 hours) of an emergency department (ED) encounter. The secondary goal was to provide a framework for the operational implementation of these machine learning models. METHODS: Data were curated from 468,167 adult patient encounters in 3 EDs (1 academic and 2 community-based EDs) of a large academic health system from August 1, 2015, to October 31, 2018. The models were validated using encounter data from January 1, 2019, to December 31, 2019. An operational user dashboard was developed, and the models were run on real-time encounter data. RESULTS: For the intermediate admission model, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.873 and the area under the precision-recall curve was 0.636. For the ICU admission model, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.951 and the area under the precision-recall curve was 0.461. The models had similar performance in both the academic- and community-based settings as well as across the 2019 and real-time encounter data. CONCLUSION: Machine learning models were developed to accurately make predictions regarding the probability of inpatient or ICU admission throughout the entire duration of a patient's encounter in ED and not just at the time of triage. These models remained accurate for a patient cohort beyond the time period of the initial training data and were integrated to run on live electronic health record data, with similar performance.
Fenn, A; Davis, C; Buckland, DM; Kapadia, N; Nichols, M; Gao, M; Knechtle, W; Balu, S; Sendak, M; Theiling, BJ
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