Safety and diagnostic efficacy of gadoteridol for magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spine in children 2 years of age and younger.
BACKGROUND: Neonates and young children require efficacious magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations but are potentially more susceptible to the short- and long-term adverse effects of gadolinium-based contrast agents due to the immaturity of their body functions. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the acute safety and diagnostic efficacy of gadoteridol (ProHance) for contrast-enhanced MRI of the central nervous system (CNS) in children ≤2 years of age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred twenty-five children ≤2 years old (including 57 children <6 months old) who underwent contrast-enhanced MRI of the CNS with gadoteridol at 0.1 mmol/kg body weight were retrospectively enrolled at five imaging centers. Safety data were assessed for acute/subacute adverse events in the 48 h following gadoteridol administration and, when available, vital signs, electrocardiogram (ECG) and clinical laboratory values obtained from blood samples taken from 48 h before until 48 h following the MRI exam. The efficacy of gadoteridol-enhanced MRI compared to unenhanced MRI for disease diagnosis was evaluated prospectively by three blinded, unaffiliated readers. RESULTS: Thirteen changes of laboratory values (11 mild, 1 moderate, 1 unspecified) were reported as adverse events in 7 (5.6%) patients. A relationship to gadoteridol was deemed possible though doubtful for two of these adverse events in two patients (1.6%). There were no clinical adverse events, no serious adverse events and no clinically meaningful changes in vital signs or ECG recordings. Accurate differentiation of tumor from non-neoplastic disease, and exact matching of specific MRI-determined diagnoses with on-site final diagnoses, was achieved in significantly more patients by each reader following the evaluation of combined pre- and post-contrast images compared to pre-contrast images alone (84.6-88.0% vs. 70.9-76.9%; P≤0.006 and 67.5-79.5% vs. 47.0-66.7%; P≤0.011, respectively). CONCLUSION: Gadoteridol at 0.1 mmol/kg body weight is safe, well tolerated and effective for contrast-enhanced MRI of the CNS in children ≤2 years of age.
Shah, CC; Spampinato, MV; Parmar, HA; Raslan, OA; Tomà, P; Lin, DDM; Vymazal, J; Colosimo, C; Enterline, DS
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