Proton pump inhibitor use is associated with increased rates of post-TIPS hepatic encephalopathy: Replication in an independent patient cohort.
PURPOSE: Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use is a potential risk factor for hepatic encephalopathy (HE), but few studies have examined the effect on post-TIPS HE. The purpose of this study was to determine whether PPIs are associated with increased rates of post-TIPS HE in an independent patient cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This single-institution retrospective study analyzed 86 patients (54 male, mean age 58.2) following TIPS from 1/1/2017 to 12/31/2019. Dates of PPI usage and episodes of new or worsening HE were recorded. Poisson regression with generalized estimating equations was used to test for association between PPI use and post-TIPS HE and to test for dose dependence. Post-TIPS HE was also analyzed using the Andersen-Gill survival model for recurrent events. RESULTS: There were 1.88 episodes of new or worsening post-TIPS HE per person-year among 35 patients on uninterrupted PPIs therapy, 1.95 on PPIs and 0.94 off PPIs among 35 patients on intermittent therapy, and 0.47 among 16 patients never on PPIs. PPI use was significantly associated with post-TIPS HE in both univariable (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 2.62; CI = 1.41-4.84; p = 0.002) and multivariable (IRR = 2.31; CI = 1.37-3.89; p = 0.002) regression. Analysis of only those patients on PPIs showed increased rates of HE with higher doses (IRR = 1.17 per 10 mg omeprazole equivalent; CI = 1.04-1.33; p = 0.011). Recurrent events survival analysis supported the association between PPI use and HE in univariable (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.17; CI = 1.19-3.95; p = 0.011) and multivariable (HR = 1.87; CI = 1.12-3.13; p = 0.017) analysis. CONCLUSION: In an independent patient cohort PPI use was associated with increased rates of new or worsening post-TIPS HE.
Dai, R; Sag, AA; Martin, JG; Befera, NT; Pabon-Ramos, WM; Suhocki, PV; Smith, TP; Kim, CY; Muir, AJ; Ronald, J
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