Return on Investment of Workplace Wellness Programs for Chronic Disease Prevention: A Systematic Review.

Journal Article (Systematic Review;Review;Journal Article)


Individuals with noncommunicable diseases account for a disproportionate share of medical expenditures, absenteeism, and presenteeism. Therefore, employers are increasingly looking to worksite wellness programs as a cost-containment strategy. Previous reviews examining whether worksite wellness programs deliver a positive return on investment have shown mixed results, possibly because the more optimistic findings come from studies with poorer methodologic quality. The purpose of this systematic review is to critically revisit and update this literature to explore that hypothesis.

Evidence acquisition

A total of 4 databases were systematically searched for studies published before June 2019. Included studies were economic evaluations of worksite wellness programs that were based in the U.S., that lasted for at least 4 weeks, and that were with at least 1 behavior change component targeting 1 of the 4 primary modifiable behaviors for chronic disease: physical activity, healthy diet, tobacco use, and harmful consumption of alcohol. Methodologic quality was assessed using Consensus for Health Economic Criteria guidelines and the risk for selection bias associated with the study design. Data extraction (September 2019-February 2020) was followed by a narrative synthesis of worksite wellness programs characteristics and return on investment estimates.

Evidence synthesis

A total of 25 relevant studies were identified. After conducting a quality and bias assessment, only 2 of the 25 studies were found to have both high methodologic rigor and lower risk for selection bias. These studies found no evidence of a positive return on investment in the short term.


The highest-quality studies do not support the hypothesis that worksite wellness programs deliver a positive return on investment within the first few years of initiation.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Baid, D; Hayles, E; Finkelstein, EA

Published Date

  • August 2021

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 61 / 2

Start / End Page

  • 256 - 266

PubMed ID

  • 33965267

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1873-2607

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0749-3797

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1016/j.amepre.2021.02.002


  • eng