Risk of Potentially Inappropriate Medications in Adults With CKD: Findings From the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be at increased risk of adverse effects from use of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs). Our objective was to assess whether PIM exposure has an independent association with CKD progression, hospitalizations, mortality, or falls. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study; 3,929 adults with CKD enrolled 2003-2008 and followed prospectively until December 2011. EXPOSURE: PIM exposure was defined as prescriptions for any medications to be avoided in older adults as defined by the 2015 American Geriatrics Society Beers Criteria. OUTCOME: Hospitalization count, death, a composite kidney disease end point of CKD progression or initiation of kidney replacement therapy (KRT), KRT, and fall events assessed 1 year after PIM exposure. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Logistic regression and Poisson regression to estimate the associations of PIM exposure with each outcome. RESULTS: The most commonly prescribed PIMs were proton pump inhibitors and α-blockers. In unadjusted models, any PIM exposure (compared to none) was associated with hospitalizations, death, and fall events. After adjustment, exposure to 1, 2, or≥3 PIMs had a graded association with a higher hospitalization rate (rate ratios of 1.09 [95% CI, 1.01-1.17], 1.18 [95% CI, 1.07-1.30], and 1.35 [95% CI, 1.19-1.53], respectively) and higher odds of mortality (odds ratios of 1.19 [95% CI, 0.91-1.54], 1.62 [95% CI, 1.21-2.17], and 1.65 [95% CI, 1.14-2.41], respectively). In a cohort subset reporting falls (n=1,109), prescriptions for≥3 PIMs were associated with an increased risk of falls (adjusted OR, 2.85 [95% CI, 1.54-5.26]). PIMs were not associated with CKD progression or KRT. Age did not modify the association between PIM count and outcomes. LIMITATIONS: Measurement bias; confounding by indication. CONCLUSIONS: Adults of any age with CKD who are prescribed PIMs have an increased risk of hospitalization, mortality, and falls with the greatest risk occurring after more than 1 PIM prescription.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Hall, RK; Blumenthal, JB; Doerfler, RM; Chen, J; Diamantidis, CJ; Jaar, BG; Kusek, JW; Kallem, K; Leonard, MB; Navaneethan, SD; Sha, D; Sondheimer, JH; Wagner, L-A; Yang, W; Zhan, M; Fink, JC; CRIC Study Investigators,

Published Date

  • December 2021

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 78 / 6

Start / End Page

  • 837 - 845.e1

PubMed ID

  • 34029681

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC8608689

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1523-6838

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1053/j.ajkd.2021.03.019


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States