Music Intervention: Nonpharmacologic Method to Reduce Pain and Anxiety in Adult Patients Undergoing Bone Marrow Procedures.

Journal Article (Journal Article)


Bone marrow procedures cause anxiety and pain in adult patients with cancer. Music is a safe, inexpensive, noninvasive intervention that is easy to implement and is well received by patients and providers.


The purpose of this quality improvement project was to develop, implement, evaluate, and sustain a music protocol during bone marrow biopsy and aspiration procedures for adult patients with hematologic malignancies. In addition, this project sought to decrease pain, anxiety, heart rate, and blood pressure in patients undergoing bone marrow procedures.


The project coordinator collected baseline data regarding toleration of bone marrow procedures and then implemented a music protocol during the procedures during a six-month intervention phase. Comparison variables included pain, anxiety, heart rate, blood pressure, and subjective impressions.


The music protocol resulted in improved patient anxiety, decreased procedure time, and decreased medication use during bone marrow procedures. All patients who used the music intervention indicated they would use it again.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Schandert, LC; Affronti, ML; Prince, MS; Schneider, SM

Published Date

  • June 2021

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 25 / 3

Start / End Page

  • 314 - 320

PubMed ID

  • 34019034

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1538-067X

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1092-1095

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1188/21.cjon.314-320


  • eng