Tripartite synaptomics: Cell-surface proximity labeling in vivo.
The astrocyte is a central glial cell and plays a critical role in the architecture and activity of neuronal circuits and brain functions through forming a tripartite synapse with neurons. Emerging evidence suggests that dysfunction of tripartite synaptic connections contributes to a variety of psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. Furthermore, recent advancements with transcriptome profiling, cell biological and physiological approaches have provided new insights into the molecular mechanisms into how astrocytes control synaptogenesis in the brain. In addition to these findings, we have recently developed in vivo cell-surface proximity-dependent biotinylation (BioID) approaches, TurboID-surface and Split-TurboID, to comprehensively understand the molecular composition between astrocytes and neuronal synapses. These proteomic approaches have discovered a novel molecular framework for understanding the tripartite synaptic cleft that arbitrates neuronal circuit formation and function. Here, this short review highlights novel in vivo cell-surface BioID approaches and recent advances in this rapidly evolving field, emphasizing how astrocytes regulate excitatory and inhibitory synapse formation in vitro and in vivo.
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